“The Devil in the Milk” — Dr. Thomas Cowan on how the A1 – A2 factor explains why even raw milk sometimes does not seem to be enough of an improvement over “store-bought”

The trouble is that we have “the wrong kind of cows”. It seems the black and white cows — Holsteins and Friesians — generally give milk that contains a small but significant amount of beta-casein type A1, which behaves like an opiate and which epidemiological studies have implicated in heart disease, Type 1 diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. This is big news, folks. Heart disease is the leading cause of death. This is like cigarettes and cancer. Dr. Thomas Cowan, co-founder of the Weston A. Price Foundation has published this fascinating introduction to the subject in his email newsletter:

Devil in the Milk

Devil in the Milk

“I have been involved in thinking about the medicinal aspects of cow’s milk virtually my entire career. As one four-year-old child pointed out to me many years ago, “Mommy, I know why he always talks about milk, his name is Cow—an.” So, I guess this milk “obsession” is no surprise. 

The obsession started in earnest about 25 years ago when I read the book The Milk of Human Kindness Is Not Pasteurized by maverick physician William Campbell Douglass, MD. This was one of the most influential books I have ever read. I became convinced that a large part of the disease in this country is related to the way we handle, or rather mishandle, milk and milk products. Raw and cultured dairy products from healthy grass-fed cows are one of the healthiest foods people have ever eaten. It is the very foundation of western civilization (not that this is necessarily so good). On the other hand, pasteurized, particularly low-fat, milk products have caused more disease than perhaps any other substance people are generally in contact with. This view was re- enforced when I met and joined up with Sally Fallon and learned the principles of the Weston A. Price Foundation. End of story, I thought – I could stop thinking about milk. 

Over the years, every once in a while Sally would say to me, “You know we have the wrong cows here.” I had also heard this from assorted bio-dynamic farmers but didn’t really know what to make of this or whether this was a medical issue I should be tackling. All along, though, something was not quite right. It remained unmistakably true that many of my patients, in spite of eating only the proper dairy products, still had illness and still seemed not to tolerate milk. Truth be told, for most of my adult life I myself couldn’t drink any kind of raw milk without feeling a bit sick and congested. Somehow my story with milk wasn’t quite finished. 

Along came the GAPS diet (Gut and Psychology Syndrome) and the use of low dose naltrexone, both of which I have described in previous Fourfold newsletters, but the relevance here is that many patients only improved and recovered when they eliminated milk (but not other dairy products) from their diets and took a medicine that stimulated endogenous (one’s own) endorphin production. Then, a further nudge on this topic showed up about a month ago. I was asked to consider writing the foreword to a book called The Devil in the Milk, written by agribusiness professor and farm-management consultant Keith Woodford. In this book Dr. Woodford lays out the theory that there is a devil in some of our milk, and this is something we need to come to grips with.

Here is a brief synopsis of the main thesis of his book. Milk consists of three parts: 1) fat or cream, 2) whey, and 3) milk solids. For this story we are only concerned about the milk solid part, as the fat and whey don’t have this “devil”. The milk solid part is composed of many different proteins which have their own names, lactose, and other sugars. It is the protein part of the solid we’re interested in. One of these proteins is called casein, of which there are many different types, but the one casein we are interested is the predominant protein called beta- casein. 

As you may or may not know, all proteins are long chains of amino acids that have many “branches” coming off different parts of the main chain. Beta casein is a 229 chain of amino acids with a proline at number 67 – at least the proline is there in “old- fashioned” cows. These cows with proline at number 67 are called A2 cows and are the older breeds of cows (e.g. Jerseys, Asian and African cows). Some five thousand years ago, a mutation occurred in this proline amino acid, converting it to histidine. Cows that have this mutated beta casein are called A1 cows, and include breeds like Holstein. 

The side chain that comes off this amino acid is called BCM 7. BCM 7 is a small protein (called a peptide) that is a very powerful opiate and has some undesirable effects on animals and humans. What’s important here is that proline has a strong bond to BCM 7 which helps keep it from getting into the milk, so that essentially no BCM 7 is found in the urine, blood or GI tract of old-fashioned A2 cows. On the other hand, histidine, the mutated protein, only weakly holds on to BCM 7, so it is liberated in the GI tract of animals and humans who drink A1 cow milk, and it is found in significant quantity in the blood and urine of these animals. 

This opiate BCM 7 has been shown in the research outlined in the book to cause neurological impairment in animals and people exposed to it, especially autistic and schizophrenic changes. BCM 7 interferes with the immune response, and injecting BCM 7 in animal models has been shown to provoke Type 1 diabetes. Dr. Woodford presents research showing a direct correlation between a population’s exposure to A1 cow’s milk and incidence of auto-immune disease, heart disease (BCM 7 has a pro-inflammatory effect on the blood vessels), type 1 diabetes, autism, and schizophrenia. What really caught my eye is that BCM 7 selectively binds to the epithelial cells in the mucus membranes (i.e. the nose) and stimulates mucus secretion. 

For reasons which are unclear historically, once this mutation occurred many thousand years ago, the A1 beta casein gene spread rapidly in many countries in the western world. Some have speculated that the reason for this wide spread of A1 cows is that the calves drinking A1 cows milk and exposed to the opiate BCM7 are more docile than their traditional brethren (in effect, they were stoned). This is only speculation, of course. But what is true is that basically all American dairy cows have this mutated beta-casein and are predominantly A1 cows. 

The amazing thing for me is that all these years Sally was right: it’s not the fat, it’s not the whey, and it’s not raw milk. Consider French cheese – mostly due to culinary snobbery, the French never accepted these A1 breeds of cow, claiming they have lousy milk. Voila, they have good milk and cheese. Our issue in America is that we have the wrong cows. When you take A1 cow milk away, and stimulate our own endorphins instead of the toxic opiate of BCM 7, some amazing health benefits ensue. 

So what are we all to do with this? Does this mean no one should drink US raw cow’s milk? One saving grace, as expressed in The Devil in the Milk, is that the absorption of BCM 7 is much less in people with a healthy GI tract. This also parallels the ideas of GAPS theory which talks a lot about this. BCM 7 is also not found in goat’s or sheep’s milk, so these types of milk might be better tolerated. 

One final point: we now have one more thing to put on our activism to-do list. Dr. Woodford explains that it is fairly straightforward to switch a herd to become an all A2 herd. No genetic engineering is needed, no fancy tests, just one simple test of the Beta-casein and it can be done. Hopefully, when this becomes widespread we will end up with a truly safe and healthy milk supply. Then maybe I should just change my name. “


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199 responses to ““The Devil in the Milk” — Dr. Thomas Cowan on how the A1 – A2 factor explains why even raw milk sometimes does not seem to be enough of an improvement over “store-bought”

  1. Congrats, Bovine on reaching 66,666 visitors yesterday, that is quite a milestone.

    Thanks for this article, I just heard about A1, A2 Tuesday at the hearing in Annapolis (conversay outside in the hall, not in the testimony.)

    I am anxious to learn more.


    • vallal ranganthan

      well, we can help all breed produce essential quality milk on the discussed line as per natural inclusion of bioavailable 12 essential AAs and minerals in one single product – NATURAL, not added – based on Ancient Ayurveda .

  2. So what breeds of cows produce this A2 milk? Did I miss it in the article somewhere?

    • I have a way that you can obtain A2 milk. Jordan Rubin, author of The Maker’s Diet is selling wholesale dairy products and meats from A2 cows starting in October. It is exciting! http://bit.ly/organictoyourdoor


      • Sadly, this link no longer exists…any idea why? I’m a Jordan Rubin fan…was excited to know he’s knowledgeable of this! I, too, have Crohns (IBD) and have found that the raw milk I’m drinking has been extremely beneficial. It must be the A2, but have put in a query with my ‘farmer’ to see if she knows. Will make for interesting conversation now that I’m informed! Thanks for sharing.

      • I’m a friend of Jordan’s and an Independent Mission Marketer for his company Beyond Organic and would be happy to answer any questions about his cattle, beef, and dairy — all of which is 100% green-fed, 100% green-finished, and 100% A2 beta casein.
        jenni smith, Beyond Organic Executive Vice President (IMM)

    • niraj

      YES……Jerseys, Asian and African cows produce A2 milk….

    • Bharat Sharma

      The native Indian breeds of cows all produce A2 milk.

      I guess, though could be wrong, that the Brahman breed in Texas – it was created from cattle imported from India – would also give A2 milk.

  3. thebovine

    Guernseys are known to produce A2 milk. Jerseys produce a higher proportion A2 than Holstein. Asian and African cattle produce A2.

    I’m not sure they’ve been tested, but my understanding is it’s likely the more traditional and less popular breeds are more A2. Anyone who knows better is welcome to comment.

    • ericwino

      I don’t know about the entire country, but in my area of SW Virginia, few dairy herds are purebred, they are crossed for higher production, better adaptation to forage/climate and genetic diversity among the herd. How does a producer go about breeding in A2 or breeding out A1? All these A1 animals end up in hamburger, is the meat similarly ‘tainted’?

      • Chris

        Meat from A2 cows is no better than meat from A1. The difference between these cows relates only to the milk they produce.

    • Nathan

      Hi, my name is Nathan and I stumbled upon your Blog as I was researching A1 cows vs A2 cows. I have just joined a company that will provide meat from Organic green fed A2 cows to everyone via network. I think highly of this person and have a feeling this company is going to take off. It provides Organic probiotic chocolate, probiotic water, A2 green fed organic beef, raw cheese, A2 cultured probiotic drink and more. I would love to know your thoughts on this. Thank you. My email is ngdmoney@gmail.com. Thanks and have a Blessed Day!

    • Jerseys, Irish Kerry, dexter, milking devon, milking shorthorn, guernsey, brown swiss all have a good chance of being A-2 milkers. To confirm a cow’s genetics you have to take a sample of hair including the roots from her tail (or his, if you’re testing a bull for his genes) and send it to a lab to be tested. (http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/A2Genotyping.php) It costs $25 per animal and takes less than a week.

      • We are currently working on producing a herd of A2/A2 (grassfed, of course) Jerseys. We started with testing all of our cows and keeping the A2 ones then we purchased some A2 semen form LIC in New Zealand and plan to AI this spring. We have a A2/A2 Milking Shorthorn bull that we are going to use as a clean-up bull.
        I do have to say that there seems to be a difference in the kind of calves that the A2 cows produce and it may be my imagination, but I think the A2 raw milk tastes better too!

        You can also get the testing done through Dr. Olree at http://www.emineral.com.(just send in tail hairs).

      • I thought this too but now we raise Once A Day Family Milk Cows and have tested many Jerseys and find they mostly all carry the A1 at least on one side if not both! I am very disappointed by that. We have tested three dexters and they all but one carried it! We are breeding it out of our herd. Thanks for the great article. I notice that my legs don’t get jerky at night when I drink A2/A2 milk. I was drinking A1/A2 from my favorite cow before and would avoid drinking milk at night for that reason. I didn’t think it affected me until I realized this. MistyMorningFarmVa.com

      • Teresa from Alberta Canada

        Thank you bunches for sharing this website. I checked with my local vet. He said it would cost $250 (10 times as much!).

    • Mayank Rana

      indian cow breeds have a2 in their milk. And the cow which has maximum a2 is the indian cow found in hilly areas. For this reason and thousands of other profits from this cow we term our cow as god.

    • Grace Willer

      Some old Dexter lines are A2, I don’t understand how you can convert the herd from A1 to A2 status. Are you keeping the same cows? How does one simple test change their milk rating? Please explain further. I am considering buying a small milk cow and would like to know beforehand if I should reject any with A1 rating. As I understand it they have a rating from the sire and the dam and it can be determined through a hair sample.

      • Chris

        Cows can be either A1A1, A1A2 or A2A2. Testing the cows tells farmers which of these each of his cows is. Once you know that, you are able to replace the cows that are A1A1 and A1A2 to end up with a herd that is all A2A2.

        Is your question about rejecting an A1 rated cow referring to wether or not their milk is safe? If so, the science so far shows that A1 milk is unsafe to about a 5th of the population. The people that it is unsafe to are people with a ‘leaky gut’.

        “This can be caused by stomach ulcers, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and Coeliac disease. Antibiotic treatment and viruses may also affect this permeability.” – Keith Woodford (2011)

        If you do not have a leaky gut then there is no reason that A1 milk should cause you any issues. Does that answer your question?

  4. A1 and A2 occurs within breeds. You just have to breed the A2 line – if that’s what you want. Or drink goats milk which is all A2.

  5. bobby

    Very eye-opening article here. I appreciate the research and time you have put into this. I am new to this new theory/hardening truth, but am catching on. Coming back from the pediatrician today, my wife & I were advised not to give our baby certain formulas. In particular he advised us to avoid Similac and Enfamil brands, and to go w/ Good Start instead. Anything for my daughter right? Now I’m sure that the Pedi doesn’t have any stock invested in Good Start, and in fact he provided an article that is very similar to the findings of yours.

    I guess my question to you is: How do you feel about these findings in correlation to formula?

    • Arline

      I suggest that you feed your children Neocate which is a non allergenic formula. It is frightfully expensive but wonderfully healthy.

    • Thomas

      No! The only formula acceptable to infants is human breast milk.

      If there’s one thing that shines through these studies, it’s that infants, with their leaky guts, are the at-risk group for any contamination of their food.

      • Callaghan Grant

        Right on! If God didn’t make it, we shouldn’t eat (drink) it. When will grow up and stop arrogantly trying to “fix” what was made perfect for us from the start?! The problem is we have gotten away from living spread out, in the country, sharing our lives with the animals that sustain us. People in the city can’t have their own A2 cow, grass fed, the raw milk of which is PERFECTLY nourishing to our bodily systems that co-evolved WITH the cows/sheep/goats with which human kind shared life and time and space. NOW we have a government agency dictating to us what we can and cannot eat/drink and sell or trade with each other. The day the FDA pays my medical bills and buys my groceries for me they can tell me what to eat and drink. Until then they need to butt out. If God didn’t make it, I ain’t eatin’ it!

      • gene

        please respect that not everyone has the ability to produce breast milk. in our modern, polluted world, with radiation everywhere, and with bad food options easier than good, there are many, many women who simply cannot produce enough to sustain their babies. please do not discount their situations, as it is stressful and depressing enough without people like you guilting them even further.

      • samantha

        Gene: very very few women can not produce enough milk. If everyone who could nurse, did so, there would be likely be enough human milk for those who can not nurse. If you can’t nurse, one should be purchasing their baby human milk.

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  8. I’m an editor at Keith Woodford’s publisher and want to expand on the point that Philippa Stevenson made in the comments above, and that does not come through clearly in Dr. Cowan’s piece.

    Any cow from any breed might produce A1 milk or A2 milk or milk containing both A1 and A2 beta-casein proteins. As Dr. Cowan suggests, cows from some breeds are more likely to produce one type of milk than cows from another breed, but you cannot know that your milk is type A1 or A2 merely by knowing the breed of the cow. That is why, as Dr. Cowan notes in his conclusion, you must either test the milk directly or test the genetics of the cow to know what type of milk she produces. If dairy farmers selectively breed their animals (of whatever type, including Holsteins) that are found to be A2-only types, then it would only take a couple of generations of reproduction before the entire herd was converted to pure A2-type — this would take about 10 years time, according to Woodford. See Woodford’s Q&A at http://www.chelseagreen.com/bookstore/item/devil_in_the_milk:paperback/author_q_a (or check out the book!).

    • Callaghan Grant

      I have been ill with IBS for most of my life. I LOVE milk and drink nearly a quart a day. Recently I swore off of store bought milk and found a dairy that produces raw, grass fed milk from Jersey cows and I began drinking this INSTEAD of the store bought milk. SINCE THE FIRST NIGHT THAT I STARTED DRINKING THE GRASS FED, RAW MILK I have experienced NO IBS symptoms. It’s like getting a second life. I can hardly wait for the Guernsey I bought to calve so I can drink her A2 milk which will also be grass fed and raw. I suspect the days of feed lot dairy ops are soon to be forever gone — and not a moment too soon for me!

      • wondering if there would be any way to get info from you Callaghan Grant on the breeding that you are doing with your own cows, we are looking to buying land and getting a cow, but would love for it to be smaller and only A2 genetics…You can get us at wellwithinorganics.com…
        Blessings, Kathy

      • Callaghan, I’m having a Jersey tested for A2. She’s blind…due to an infection in her embelical cord as a calf that never really cleared up (I assume it has now–will have a vet check before purchase). She’s currently on alfalfa, which is now a GMO crop. I’ve got great pasture land for this heifer, so what do I need to feed her besides just grass? Seems everything else is tainted with Monsanto’s Round-Up Ready genetic altering. And once she freshens next year, do I need to supplement with alfalfa and grain? Would love any advice!

    • Thank you for this clarification, Jonathon!

      • Callaghan Grant

        Grass and peanut hay are fine. If you live where alfalfa will grow, you can plant some. Greens of any sort that the cow will eat (except alfalfa you don’t know for sure is not gmo, and soybean and corn) are all good. Lucern, clover, etc. Good on you for taking this little blind gal and giving her a useful life!

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    • Teresa Lou

      We don’t want to worship o SLAUGHTER THEM
      we just want to suck their tits off and feed our families ,make cheese drink wine and be happy.Not stand in a russian bread line from 8am till dawn.while my tax dollars are buying more and more milk to store in a whse for the purpose of rotting.

  12. thebovine

    Mercola has now published a story based on material from this post. Thanks to Marilyn for bringing this fact to our attention. Here’s a link to the Mercola story:


  13. We have 2 private milk cows, a Jersey and a Dexter. Anyone know where we can have the milk tested to see whether they are A1 or A2 ?

    • Lori M

      UC Davis Dairy devision does it for 25.00 a cow. You just pull a few tail hairs from each cow send it to them and the test takes a bout 2 weeks to get the results. Good luck!

  14. thebovine

    I believe that’s a service offered by the A2 corporation in New Zealand. You could look them up on the web. In fact I think they can also do it from a tail hair or hairs from the animal(s) in question.

    • The farmer we’re buying our Jersey from said we’d have to grain her and give her alfalfa over the winter months here in NW Oregon because they’re so cold and wet. Any alternatives youre aware oft? He said if we don’t want to do that we should get a hardier breed like milking shorthorn. Just wondered if anyone has raised grass fed Jersey in an inclement climate?

      • Lori M

        Hey there, we are in OR and have an A2 Jersey. She is rotated on 4 acres pasture and fed whole barley fodder with molasses, redmonds minerals, kelp and Diamond V yeast. Only on the very coldest of days of winter do we give her a soaked mix of oats and barley grain (about 12 pounds) and then all the good quality orchard grass she will eat. She is super healthy, never been sick, and milks 7 gallons a day at calving and is still milking 4 gallons a day at the time we start dry off. The fodder has a lot to do with this. Our fodder system only cost us about 100.00 to put together and then just the cost of the barley.

  15. Pingback: The Devil Is in the Milk

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  21. Robert Flinch

    I read the book (actually got a copy from my local library) and did some research online. While the observational studies (a hundred or so) cited a “possible correlation”, there really isn’t any proof
    as of yet. The one study on rabbits and a few on mice didn’t take into account “raw vs pasteurized” milk nor the enzyme, vitamin and probiotic concentrations. This is a major major flaw in this
    research that few are contemplating.

    You can’t prove causality from observational studies as my friend David so eloquently stated. How many other variables were NOT OBSERVED or deliberately excluded for whatever reasons?

    The benefits of raw milk whether A1 or A2 are obvious for those of us that have benefited. If you feel better, have improved intestinal function and immune health like I have then keep consuming it.

    Right now, in Ohio only A1 or A2/A1 mix is available so until access to exclusively A2 becomes available I’m not going to be concerned about it and I’ve been aware of this controversy for almost a decade.

    Remember, ONE HUNDRED PERCENT of the studies examined pasteurized miik ONLY…AND…the majority of adversely effected humans were the ones who already had intestinal disturbances of one kind or another as well as ulcers…AND…once again…you can’t prove causality from observational studies. END OF STORY. I wish these authors would take some critical thinking classes before they start wasting everyone’s time and scaring people needlessly. But beyond weather they can think is the obvious observation that any author no matter how credentialed is only human and can base an entire life’s work on wrong assumptions, too narrow a focus, and subconscious and corporately influenced bias.

    • Why would you believe that raw or pasturization is relevant? We’re talking about the chemical structure of the protein. Just because you personally feel better is not really relevant to whether in the long run A1 is implicated in some serious diseases. This is not a case of correlation being mistaken for causation far as I can see. Perhaps you’re the one who should take a critical reasoning course. Since the consequences are potentially serious, it’s probably wise to exercise precaution and avoid cow dairy until this is sorted out.

      • Mike

        Critical thinking of any kind is never universal in any individual; everyone is subject to episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought. Your concern over potentially serious consequences are based on flawed science.

        Why would you believe that raw or pasteurization “may not be” relevant?

        Heating/pasteurization and torturous mixing/homogenization can force milk casein and fats into new configurations that make the proteins stackable into fibers/amyloids. These milk protein fibers may be of interest, because protein fibers are important in many diseases, e.g. type I diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease. The problem with amyloids, is that these fibers form a natural repetition of the same amino acid on each of the stacked proteins. This repetitive amino acid, e.g. positively charged lysine or arginine, can provide a binding site for a similarly spaced, oppositely charged molecule, such as heparin, which is involved in dragging molecules from the surface into cells. Beta amyloid fibers with positively charged amino acids in a band along their edges are what kills nerve cells in Alzheimer’s disease.

        Research has recently demonstrated that milk casein forms amyloid fibers in response to pasteurization and homogenization. It would be interesting to know if these fibers bind to heparin and if these fibers are toxic to intestinal cells.

        You can easily google this research for yourself and begin the process of “critical thinking” (I hope). Let me get you started:

        Food Hydrocolloids 24 (2010) 259–265
        – Heat treatment affects the molecular structure of milk proteins at the interfaces of oil-in-water emulsions and in aqueous media.
        – Heat treatment, depending on the processing conditions, can result in irreversible changes in milk protein structure. When milk is heated at temperatures above 65 C whey proteins unfold and expose previously hidden hydrophobic groups (Croguennec, Kennedy, & Mehra, 2004). Following unfolding, whey proteins are capable to interact with themselves and k-casein to form heat-induced protein aggregates (Donato, Guyomarc’h, Amiot, & Dalgleish, 2007; Jang & Swaisgood, 1990; Smits & van Brouwershaven, 1980). These changes at molecular level may have an impact on protein functionality which sometimes is desirable and other times can be detrimental (Singh & Creamer, 1992).

        Why would you look past his mention of “other variables” in the mix that were never evaluated? His questions posed are “critical thinking” in the purest sense. The case could be made that this “exercise is precaution” to avoid A1 milk could be doing more harm than good by depriving people benefits. The A1/A2 controversy is “Flawed Science” as in the “Cholesterol Myths” that mislead generations into eating habits that likely contributed to early disease and death.

        Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

        The “Science” isn’t in for A2 and may never be because of the countless variables (and corporate interests) that need to be evaluated. Way too much time and money.

  22. thebovine

    As I understand it, goats milk is exclusively A2, so if goats milk is available in your area, then you do have access to A2 milk and the question is no longer purely academic.

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  24. Mara

    I have a question – can someone help me out? I am now drinking goat’s milk, but I wish I could use heavy cream in my coffee. I have read conflicting views on this; some say cream is just as bad as milk if it’s A1 (and that’s all I can get, here in the USA) and some seem to say that cream is okay.

    Please advise…I’d very much appreciate it!

  25. thebovine


    As I understand it, the A1 A2 difference is entirely in the protein part of the milk. Now the cream is the fat part of the milk, so you’d be ok using cream or butter from A1 cows.

    • Stranger

      Hello! Just a quick note, many years later. Because butter is comprised of approximately 80% milk-fat, and 20% proteins, etc. (water?), there would still be an issue (at least, potentially) with the A1 proteins being harmful.

      Ghee, also known as clarified butter, which is produced by heating and straining the milk solids (containing milk proteins), could potentially be fine.

      Am not sure about heavy cream.

      But, a percentage of milk proteins in addition to fats, even in a product with mostly fat, could be cause for concern

  26. Mara

    Thank you; I very much hope that’s true!
    Switching to goat’s milk (since I cannot get A2 milk where I am), I’ve already noticed much less gastric distress.
    I will try cream. Apparently, cream does not contain this “devil” of a protein. Good to know! I will try cream in my coffee, while still using goat’s milk for cereal, etc. Thank you for your reply.

    • yonny chavez

      mara,soy veterinario y de zonas aridas,naci y casi me crie en esos lugares y nada mas sabroso que un cafe con leche de cabra y si quieres crema, hierbe la leche y utiliza la nata sobre nadante que flota esa es la crema , es divina. te indico que recomiendo mucho la leche de cabra y su carne desde el punto bibliogrfico que estudio y este tema de la genetica A2 me da mas rzon pra indicar le valor nutritivo y funcional de esta maravilla, pero concuerdo con algunos estudiosos solo si estn en un ambiente agroalimentario autotono, su medio ambiente natural.saludos. MV YONNY CHAVEZ, VENEZUELA , LARA.

    • ADSFS

      Cream does have some of the milk protein in it.

  27. Luke Rhodes

    We have Dutch Belted cows . Are they a1or a2 ? where can I get them tested?


  28. thebovine

    As of now, I don’t know of any North American lab that’s been licenced by the A2 corporation of New Zealand to do such testing. Bug the folks at A2 corp to get them to hurry up with that.

  29. This is grand. we are on it. The Milkmen USA is on the way. Thanks to books, and men like this. Get your pitch-forks out and support The Farm-To-Consumer Legal Defense Fund. See: http://www.farmtoconsumer.org. Protect your rights to buy, sell, and drink Raw Milk. Thank you.

    And watch for the Milkmen. They are back!

  30. Donna Hudson

    I have figured out a cheap way to get cows tested locally. Look in your phone book or esp in online directories for your area for someone under “homeopathy”. These people are often using machines that do “electrodermal screening” or EAV. There are various brand names, QXCI, Biomeridian, but they are all pretty similar. You need milk samples and an “allergic” person in the circuit, which the machine owner can often provide. For a dairy, ask the operator if she will run a small number of samples for free, just to “test the test”. For a backyard cow or two, just pay for the 15 minutes or so to settle the machine in and run the sample. Or just get someone to muscle test you (AK) for the sample, or to test a known reactor to cow’s milk. I have found a Guernsey cow and tried some milk, no headaches. The neurological effects are quickest to come and go for me. (I have celiac disease, so by definition have leaky gut, but avoiding diary is much more inconvenient for me than avoiding gluten) You may have a friend with minor but reliable reactions to grocery milk who can test for you. For a dairy wanting to go out on their own, the very best sources of customers are the very people who are driving customers away from grocery milk. If you can provide them with samples of milk that don’t set off their machines for their “allergic” clients, or you sell milk that don’t give the chiropractor’s patients headaches, you will be sent a stream of customers. But you have to get your cattle tested and sorted out first. I think from Dr. Cowan’s article that you can use blood from bulls and heifers to test them too.

  31. RadiantLux

    Great! If getting raw milk isn’t hard enough!

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  33. thebovine

    This post has been attracting considerable traffic, even months after it went up. Be sure to check out the latest discussion around A1 and A2 milk, from an Australian TV program in April 2010:


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  35. Linda Rivera

    The article mentions people only giving up milk – not other dairy products, and seeing an improvement.

    I want to know if A-1 milk is used to make yogurt, or other cultures, is the A-1 part destroyed by fermentation???


  36. Linda Rivera

    After milk has been turned into cheese (and also turned into yogurt) does this eliminate the problem A-1?

    I’m also confused about Whey. Whey is high protein. How then does the whey not contain A-1 if the milk was from A-l cows?

    • dt

      Did you get an answer to the cheese A1 question, i have found studies showing that the correlations of milk or yogurt (A1) causing diabetes and CHD are not very significant (this could be true or false) and that when tested with cheeses those its way lessened. Now i iknow thats not a direct answer but it shows something. It seems to have to do with the sugar conversion from cheese fermentation, maybe the proteins are eaten by bacteria. Whats your conclusion? thank you.

    • Thomas

      The different properties of casein (including A1) and whey allow them to be separated, and this is exactly what happens during cheesemaking. That’s why there is likely negligible A1 in whey.

      And yes, casein is degraded by bacteria during the fermentation of milk to make cheese or yogurt. This likely reduces A1 to negligible levels.

  37. thebovine

    I understand butter from A1 cows is not such a problem. Not sure about other secondary milk products. In butter, it’s the fat content that’s concentrated. A1 or A2 is a variable in the protein content of the milk.

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  39. Susie

    The URL for this post is crazy! It is too long to be copied and pasted into my browser and when I try to search Google for it, I get an error page saying Request-URI Too Large, The requested URL is too large to process. Luckily a link in a webpage still works but it’s still a poor choice for a URL.

  40. thebovine

    Hmm, Susie, I wonder how that story got to be one of our most popular ever if the link is really too long. I’ll have to keep that in mind for future posts!

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  42. Jacqui

    What do you suggest to drink for a sensitive baby boy of 6 months. He is being breastfed right now, but eventually he will be weaned….most of the nasty tinned powder stuff is cows milk no ? How can I find something much cleaner than that ? I am in the UK

  43. Linda Rivera

    Thank you so much for your replies to my questions! Raw organic dairy is a wonderful source of health – lots of good bacteria, enzymes, etc. With highly toxic fluoride added to our water, pesticides on food and chemicals, we need all the help we can get!

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  47. Thanks for posting this! I had no idea there was a difference and we are looking to get a dairy animal in the spring. This really helps to guide me on the type of animal we bring home (which will probably be a goat).

    • Callaghan Grant

      Get a Guernsey! I have an A2 Guernsey and when she calves I will be looking for an A2 mini Jersey bull to which I will breed her back.

  48. The A2 corp is not handy or cheap for testing. GenomNZ is doing genetic testing for $15 per animal. If you have only a few cows to test, it’s cheapest to go through Richard Olree DC. He’s charging $25 each, but that covers the $25 per batch fee to send biological samples into NZ. See http://www.emineral.info/a1a2app.pdf for the form, how to take samples, and where to send them. Any dairy that keeps a bull should have their bull tested, it would be crazy not to. See my website for my notions on how to test the milk much more cheaply, about $2-3 per cow. I know the raw milk people want to ignore this problem, but I know of cases where people couldn’t drink raw cows milk, but did fine on goats milk.

  49. DJ Wyatt

    Well can anyone tell me if there is any REAL conclusive , unbiased research at all on this A2 milk phenomenon? Does the World Health Organization accept any of the research that was done as uncorrupted?
    At this point in time there are more A2/A2 Holstein bulls in the market place than any other breed so surely that would mean that there were alot more Holsteins with the allele to start with!!
    All breeds carry the A2 allele its the Kiwi marketers who are promoting the Jersey + Guernsey thing more than any other country…
    So what does the A3 allele do anybody want to have a crack at that one I wonder what miraculous things it will do?? I wonder which company will get some research done on it….

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  53. Dairy Farmer

    This is great!!!
    In Australia we have A2 milk available on shelves. I am one of the farmers who supply the company with only A2 milk from A2 cows. We have Friesians, Jersey, Brown Swiss, ARB, Ayrshires, I even have some beef crosses. We have every single animals tested before we can put them in the vat. We are also audited many times in the year to ensure our herds are keep clean from A1 animals. Every batch of milk is tested for the purity of A2 and we are penalized if it is not pure A2. The test is simple; you pull out hair from the tail and make sure there is DNA on it. Or there is a new ear punch, this is very small hole taken from the ear that heals quickly. It is less then putting an ear tag in your animal. I and many family members have leaky guts. I would never produce any other type of milk. I could not live with how it affects the people.
    If this link does not work or turn up, just google as Australia.

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  56. Ian Graham

    This is a long thread, starting in March 2009 but for what it’s worth, you can get any cow tested for the A1 or A2 genotype at Veterinary Genetics Lab, University of California, Davis. Contact is Stephanie Oppenheim, smoppenheim@ucdavis.edu, 530) 754-5684. Cost is $25 per cow, supplied with tail hair sample. Fast turnaround. They tell you if your cow is A2/A2 or A1/A2 or A1/A1.
    They started doing the testing in summer 2010, as of this date have less than 10,000 cows in the database, and are getting about 20 requests a week.
    I got my Canadian Linebacks tested, a rare breed, pioneer dual or triple purpose type cow. They are mostly A2/A2.

  57. thebovine

    Thanks for that intelligence, Ian. This post may be from a while ago, but it’s still one of the top three posts on the Bovine in terms of total readership. People are still reading it. I guess it comes up on search engines when people look for A1 A2 information. And it is a pretty good overview of the subject.

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  61. Erwin Breus

    Wether A1 nor A2 give positive results by the proove with a pendulum.
    The resonance to probands is more or less negative.
    What will a human being do with negative energy?
    The own positive results occur when the milk is vaccinated by a “Kefir” wellknown in the Kaukasus.
    But who implicated milk — today an industrial not a nature’s product anymore?.
    Milk is dued to the specific creature.

    Good health

    Above studies for whom who is interested in and likes to look for.

    1*) Feskanich D, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Golditz GA.
    Milk, dietary calcium and bone fractures in women: A 12 year prospective study.
    Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 992-7.

    2*) Cumming RG, Kilneberg RJ.
    Case-Control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly.
    Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 493-505.

    3*) Huang Z, Himes JH, Mc Govern PG.
    Nutrition and subsequent hip fracture risk among a national cohort of white women.
    Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 124-34.

    4*) Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al.
    Risk factors for hip fracture in white women.
    N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 767-73.

    5*) Finn SC. The skeleton crew: is calcium enough?
    J Women’s Health 1998; 7(1): 31-6.

    6*) Nordin CBE. Calcium and osteoporosis. Nutrition 1997; 3(7/8): 664-86.

    7*) Reld DM, New SA. Nutritional influences on bone mass.
    Proceed Nutr Soc 1997; 56: 977-87.

    8*) Tucker KL, Hannan MR, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PWF, Kiel DP.
    Potassium, Magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.
    Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 727-36.

    9*) Prince R, Devine A, Dick I, et al.
    The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone mineral density in post-menopausal women.
    J Bone Miner Res 1995; 10: 1068-75

    10*) Pennington JAT. Bowes and Churches Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. New York: Lippincott 1998.

    11*) Omish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA.
    Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?
    Lancet 1990; 336: 129-33.

    12*) Cramer DW, Harlow BL, Willet WC.
    Galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 1989; 2: 66-71.

    13*) Outwater JL, Nicholson A, Barnard N.
    Dairy products and breast cancer; the IGF-1, estrogen, and bGH hypothesis.
    Medical Hypothesis 1997; 48: 453-61.

    14*) Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, et al.
    Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and prostate cancer risk; a prospective study.
    Science 1998; 279: 563-5.

    15*) World Cancer Research Fund.
    Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
    Amercan institute of Cancer Research. Washington, D.C.: 1997.

    16*) Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker ME.
    Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls; randomised, controlled intervention trial. BMJ 1997; 315 1255-69.

    17*) Scott FW. Cow milk and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Is there a relationship? Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 489-91.

    18*) Karjalainen J, Martin JM, Knip M, et al.
    A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 302-7.

    19*) Bertron P, Barnard ND, Mills M. Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, part 1:
    The public health implications of variations in lactase persistence.
    J Nati Med Assoc 1999; 91: 151-7.

    20*) Jacobus CH, Holick MF, Shao Q, et al.
    Hypervitaminosis D associated with drinking milk.
    N Engl J Med 1992; 326(18): 1173-7.

    21*) Holick MF, Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr 1996; 126(4suppl): 1159S-64S.

    22*) Clyne PS, Kulczycki A.
    Human breast milk contains bovine igG. Relationship to infant colics?
    Pediatrics 1991; 87(4): 439-44.

    23*) Iacono G, Cavataio F, Montalto G, et al.
    Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children.
    N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 110-4.

    What’s Wrong with Dairy Products? PCM (physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine), 5100 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 404, Washington, DC 20016, Tel.: 001-202-686-2210, Fax: 001-202-686-2216, pcrm@pcrm.org http://www.pcrm.org

  62. I will read the article. Have the book. I know of investors interested in farming, milking, selling this type of milk. Contact me at : themilkman@earthlink.net.

    Ed Hartz
    The Milkman
    The Milkman Company

  63. Bron jaenke

    In reply to the statement about only feeding babies breast milk, i think you should read and article by Keith Woodford about sids. I can’t post a link im sorry but if you just Google ‘Keith Woodford sids’ it should be at the top of the page. It appears that it matters what milk the mother drinks too. Im a believer in a2 milk. My family suffer from a high incidence of auto immune diseases and can’t believe the positive changes in our health since the switch to a2. I am so grateful that we have a2 milk in the supermarkets in Australia.

  64. I am very interested in this issue since we hand milk for our own consumption, although we also use excess milk as fertilizer for fruit trees, gardens and pasture. It would be nice to see conclusive research on the subject, although like anything else that’s “researched”, is any of it truly conclusive to anyone but the group heading the research? There are always doubts and questions surrounding any results, and the only way for each person to truly know is to try A1 milk and A2 milk, and see if they notice a difference.

    Do your homework, do your own research, follow your gut.

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  69. just a man who wants to prevent people from falling into psychological obsessions with food like he did when he first read about and got into "raw" . .

    Oh give me a break. Milk is milk (from humanely raised cows of course).. What’s important is HOW the cow is treated, not whether the milk is raw or not or what the cow eats. . People get way too obsessed with the “science” . . Are you serious, you are actually narrowing it down to the genes and saying there are “wrong cows”???? If milk works for you fine, if it doesn’t it doesn’t . . I noticed awhile back when I first started drinking raw milk it happened to me too; sometimes people get these things called “obsessions.” It can happen to the best of us, it’s not on purpose .. Just look at the whole “Sally Fallon” “Weston Price” crap, they mean well but they have some serious psychological problems, to actually go in and “study” a group of people and call their heads the “wrong shape” or “his head is too narrow” “we should have wide heads” give me a break . .

    I make sure all the meat and dairy I consume is from humanely raised cows because that is what matters to me, I don’t mind what the cow eats, I don’t mind if it’s “raw” or not, in fact I prefer cooked raw milk. . I support Organic Pastures raw milk, however I enjoy the taste of it cooked so I cook it for about an hour and WOW it tastes amazing; this is what works for me. . I also drink about a half gallon of Organic Valley chocolate milk everyday (I am on the gallon of milk a day diet) . . I feel the greatest I’ve ever felt in my entire life (without sounding disrespectful, I feel like the greatest of gods), and this is coming from a guy who was obsessed with “raw” milk and basically lived off of it for awhile (yikes!!!) You can’t “study” milk and call certain genes “bad” or “wrong”. . A cow is a cow, and if you raise her humanely she will provide you with good milk . .
    I realize some of this post is not written in the most intelligent way and some of it isn’t worded perfectly (I am not an english major and tend to group ideas together that aren’t related) however I wanted to post this to hopefully reach out to another person who is maybe just discovering “raw” milk and hopefully preventing you from making the same mistake I did. . Raw isn’t better, what’s better is that the cow is raised as a cow should be raised. Don’t get caught up in raw = better such obsessions like that, I mean just look at the the whole Weston Price philosophy as I stated above, basically living your whole life living off butter because supposedly milk is “bad” or whatever, not to mention the sheer disgusting-ness of as I said above “studying native peoples’ faces” and calling a wide head “the ideal structure” ..
    Organic non-gmo vegetable oil is wonderful for you (mmmm deep fried foods anyone?) , and jeezus live a little organic pasta (non-whole grain) tastes great don’t lead yourself down a hole of obsession-riddled food ideals that don’t even make sense. .
    If you simplify things you will realize these are all people with psychological obsessions and hopefully I will help you see the light in the sense that raw does not equal better . . Try cooking raw milk it tastes even better . . Try deep-frying with organic vegetable oils, you will feel great . . Ignore Weston Price foundation crap and ignore all the raw=better crap . . . Take what you will from this hopefully you won’t live your life based on an obsession . . .. Treat your cows humanely 🙂 Eat what you want as long as you are supporting non-gmo, non-Monsanto, organic when possible (non-gmo is more important) and of course certified humane. .

    • Callaghan Grant

      Yes, treat our animal wards lovingly, as to the remainder…

      • just a man who wants to prevent people from falling into psychological obsessions with food like he did when he first read about and got into "raw" . .

        Hey Callaghan like I said in my post above I am not a lawyer or English major so I don’t really understand what you are saying . . You are most likely mocking my post that is fine, it might look like it’s written by some crazed lunatic. .. Hey, even I have obsessions of my own I haven’t shaken yet . . What ISN’T an obsession right?
        I simply want to possibly be that light for someone who is finding themselves obsessed with raw milk or someone who takes the advice of weston price foundation that kind of stuff. . Because I was like that too, in fact the whole reason I got into food was because I would go and read those “experiments” that Weston would write about, how he would go and study the native people’s facial structures, unfortunately in my immature and young mindset that to me was awesome, oh there we go that makes sense, eat your butter and have a nice wide face . . However what a horrible way to live . . It wasn’t until I was a bit older, a bit wiser, a bit more mature, my heart much bigger than it was that I realized how morally wrong and filthy that “studying” is . . Just like this post above, how can you go in and study a cow’s genes and lead all these gullable people into believing something that really makes no sense . .
        The internet can really take the lives of the youth, rob you of your soul and spirit . .

        Like I said if you find yourself only drinking raw milk it’s time to switch it up . . . Don’t let obsessions control you. .. It’s all in the mind, remember 🙂

    • John Mills

      “psychological problems”?…rrriiiggghtt….”obsession”?….oookkkk. This describes you rambling precisely.

    • Callaghan Grant

      You are SO wrong. Without otherwise changing my diet OR exercising I have lost 35 lbs in the last 7 months simply by switching to raw, grass fed, A-2 milk from my own cow. I am healthier every day now — no longer plagued by IBS and I drink about a quart of my own GUERNSEY cow’s milk each day and eat nearly as much homemade yogurt (unpasteurized) as well each day. I have recently returned to lifting weights at 52 years of age and I feel better and better. If anyone was lost their groove, raw, grass fed, A2 milk will get you back into the swing of things — guaranteeeeeed. I recently rebred my gal to an A2 X A2 Jersey bull that was about 850 lbs at grow out. I intend to breed these babies down selcting for A2 X A2 and high fat production on a grass diet. After all, as I get older, I want smaller cows to have to manage and my guernsey girl, though sweet and docile, weighs 1150 lbs and needs allot of pasture space. May God bless your life with a Juernsey A2 X A2 miniature cow from my herd!

      • Natasha

        Dexters are very small, very sweet cows that give lovely fatty A2 milk. They don’t require a lot of space or food. The farmer in Texas I used to buy my raw milk from was in love with her little Dexters. She also mentioned that they can be milked once a day or even skip a day. She called them “Perfect cows for the retirees”.

    • I know your posts were a couple of years ago, and I agree 100% about humane treatment of treatment, non gmo, non Monsanto etc. BUT for the rest you who speak in ignorance when there are peer reviewed studies showing the absolute opposite of what you are spouting and those of us who are LIVING proof of the benefits of RAW GRASS FED ONLY COWS MILK glaringly show how biased and stupid you are! Cooked milk IS DEAD MILK. It destroys sensitive enzymes, vitamins and alters the protein so that it then causes inflammation in our bodies, heart disease and host of other disease with stats showing clearly from the 1900 and in 2005. Did you know guy that in 1900 9% out of 100,000 deaths from heart disease but in 2005 it was over 26% per 100,000. The CLA a powerful anticancer component in RAW GRASS FED ONLY COWS milk which is NOT found that high in cows that are fed grains, So in 1900 of those drinking RAW GRASS FED COWS milk it was less than 4% but in 2005 it rose to over 26%! Diabetes did not even register as a top 11 causes of death but today it is one of the leading causes of death! I am an RN, I study and research all the time. I remember our family doc back in 1963 who was 80 said…”I never saw heart disease or cancer like I do today since they started homogenizing and pasteurizing milk! How right he was!! And A1 cows DOES have a mutant that affects how the protein chain is broken down causing inflammation in our bodies and disease including neurological! When grain whether fed humanly or not, grain like corn changes the PH in the cows stomachs and gut which then lets E COLIE proliferate! Did you know sir that when we make yogurt we have to STERILIZE store bought milk because it is bacterially unbalanced?? Did you know that RAW GRASS FED cows milk does NOT need to be sterilized? That heated milk actually ROTS not sours which sour milk we can still cook with and make nutrient dense drinks like Kefir and more? Rotten milk will make you very ill! Look dude, I have the most painful chronic pain disease known to man CRPS/RSD for over 50 years and once I switched to RAW GRASS FED COWS milk, low and behold I am able to function without any (strong!) pain meds, the bursitis in my hips left being worse, is gone! (Cleveland clinic docs wanted to remove the bursea sacs!) The chronic bursitis and tendonitis throughout my body was gone!! The chronic inflammation in my gut was gone, no more living tied to the ‘throne’, no more seasonal allergies, not for me, my husband, our kids, grandkids nor my Mom who was supposedly lactose intolerant who can drink 1 gallon a week of only RAW GRASS FED MILK. We tried RAW GRASS FED milk form A1 cows. NOPE! Not as bad but we got FAR MORE benefits from cows from A2!! But our small farm that is the one only local the cows needed to be dried up. We cannot get our RAW GRASS FED MILK, We have used up our frozen by Dec. 21st. I am completely back to full pain meds with my pain pump back to full med instead of sterile water, our guts are a mess, we are all back on full allergy meds! We all tried drinking store bought milk from A1 cows lightly heated humanely treated but IT DID NOT WORK!!! .We are ALL back to the old mess in our bodies!! AWWW the heck with it, don’t let truth get in YOUR way!! Not worth any more of my time. Sad, people like you who pass judgment upon all. Great it works for you but do NOT ASSUME we are obsessed when our bodies prove other wise!!!

  70. nedlud

    You just ‘may’ want to investigate Organic Valley a little further.

    Give ol’ George Siemon a call.

    He’ll tell it to you straight.


    • just a man who wants to prevent people from falling into psychological obsessions with food like he did when he first read about and got into "raw" . .

      Hey you know what you are 100% right, I had read about some of the stuff going on with him/the company, and I came to realize you can’t penalize all those great families who ARE treating their cows right and doing the right thing simply because the CEO/owner is not the best guy in the bunch. He doesn’t have his own farm where he provides some of the milk for the company, only the family farmers do so I had to overlook the fact that the CEO might not be the best guy . Trust me I know all about that, I was hurt/betrayed that they were purchasing milk from a known factory farm and passing it off as humane, but that was in the past and like i said think about all of the family farmers doing the right thing, which is what the company is made up of, just that = the family farmers. . .

      It would help instead of posting something useless like “you just may want to ….” you should instead just post everything you know that way we can all learn and grow from this together, as a single consciousness . .

      • just a man who wants to prevent people from falling into psychological obsessions with food like he did when he first read about and got into "raw" . .

        I should add I just looked it up and I actually might be wrong. George might own a farm and he just might contribute to the milk supply of the company, my main point was that I wouldn’t want to penalize the majority of the families doing the right thing, providing good milk because the CEO made some bad decisions. . Don’t get me wrong i would never support a factory farm in my life, regret ever doing so . . . . Most of the problems they had are behind them, as far as I know . .

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  78. cassi

    love this article…very informative. i’ve just started drinking raw milk due to gut problems and allergies. the breed i drink from (farm) is breed heuse rhine issel, a horned breed. does anyone know if it is a1 or a2?

    • Callaghan Grant

      Pull some hairs from her tail and be sure to get the follicle tissue at the base. Findyourself a DNA testing facility by way of Google and pay the usual and customary fee of about $30 bucks and find out!

  79. The book ‘Devil in the milk’ is detailed, well written and utterly convincing. But none the less, almost nothing has been done by the big dairy companies to address this risk in the 18 years since the first studies linking A1 consumption to childhood diabetes in Samoan children were conducted. Why is this we ask? I’m left only with the conclusion that, like tobacco and asbestos, dairy companies are playing the lobby and wait game. Horrible.

    • Channah

      @William Knight:
      Well, the A2 corporation didn’t make the test available to them. It only made it available to small family farmers who were willing to live by their economic restrictions which precluded them being a dairy. I was wondering what a big commercial dairy that wanted to switch to A2 could do. I am not one, but I know better than to write a dairy asking them to switch without giving them some plan of action, however abbreviated.
      @sheo narain beria
      Breeding program:
      Step 1: Test all breeding stock for A1/A2 gene (unless they have already been tested and you know their status).
      Step 2: Remove all A1/A1 stock from program. Remove as many A1/A2 stock as is compatible with genetic diversity and other goals of program. Ideally, you should remove all A1/A2 stock, but sometimes this is not possible. If you keep an animal that you have removed from the breeding program or that is only still there for other breeding goals and has the A1 allele, do not drink milk from that animal if you are sensitive.
      Step 3: Breed next generation.
      Step 4: Go to Step 1.
      As soon as you have removed all A1/A1 and A1/A2 stock you are done. If you ever reintroduce an animal containing the A1 allele (though you should probably avoid this), you should restart the above program for all descendants of that animal.

      I am not a breeder. However this program is the program that any breeder follows for removing any undesirable gene from their herd. If you are trying to remove this gene, you are a breeder, and you should probably read a (few) book(s) on the subject. They can tell you things like how to deal with genetic diversity, what other goals you might want to have, and how to test for those goals. I can’t recommend a good one, but I bet the writer of this article could.

      • Channah

        Sorry for putting both replies here, I had an error the first time I wrote this, and thought it was going to put it elsewhere when it posted it this time.

  80. You really make it seem really easy together with your presentation but I in finding this matter to be actually one thing which I feel I might by no means understand. It kind of feels too complicated and very large for me. I’m taking a look forward on your next submit, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

  81. i believe in bad effect of A1 milk,but how A1 cows can be converted into A2 cow. if A1 cow is crossed with the seamens of pure A2 bull wether his child will be A2 cow.what one should do covert A1 cow into A2 cow.

  82. my question is : – what is the system of selective breeding for coverting A 1 cow into A 2 cow.please give us step by step detail of action which I have to follow. pl. do the needful.

  83. rob c

    i have a question. why doesnt everyone just switch to goats milk?

    • Laurie

      Seriously! This is crazy-complex. As Rob c wrote, I’m just switching to goats milk in my coffee and almond milk on cereal. This is a good way to put stress on your system (trying to figure out how to obtain A2 vs A2 milk in the US) and stress is probably more damaging than the milk. As Sean Croxton said in a video blog recently — we need to chill a bit on information overload and ENJOY our food. For every nutrition theory there is a counter-theory these days and it’s getting to be too much. Stress is probably the real enemy!

      • Callaghan Grant

        Sure, do what suits you but goat’s milk sucks. BTW, did you have someone dig that whole for you or did you get your head in the sand under your own steam?

        Healthy Happy 2012!

      • Darcy Goodrich

        Pardon me, but one who makes a blanket statement such as “goat milk sucks”, could easily lead the world to believe that they have their head in the sand as well. Please keep the useless bantering to yourselves, that is not why I subscribe to this blog.

  84. Callaghan Grant

    Sorry about the toesies, Love. I’ve tried allot of goat’s milk and allot of different types of cow’s milk as well and there IS indeed a HUGE fluctution in taste and quality. So you are right, I was painting the filigree with a wide brush. Of course, you realize that fighting useless banter WITH useless banter only adds to the useless banter. {:-) NOW we have *3* posts of useless banter! But you can fire away again if you like and I shant add to it anymore. God bless you in 2012!

  85. lela

    what type of milk do the french Montbéliard and Simmental cows produce?

  86. Paula

    Jordan Rubin’s new company, Beyond Organic, features milk (and meat) products from his completely green-fed A2 cows. From his 8,000 acre farm!

    • Mirabelle Galian

      I cannot find any mention of A2 cows in Jordan Rubin’s Beyond Organic website.I wonder why? So, for now, I am not convinced that their dairy and meat are A2. I am looking for A2 grass fed, raw dairy in the Austin area. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

      • Rob Ciniello

        So what is being done about this a1 milk. Its been a while since I’ve checked up on people’s responses. Has there been any more study’s that prove there is a problem.

  87. Pingback: Dairy? Do I have to minimize if I am not sensitive to it? | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page

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  89. mouli42@gmail.com

    very interesting
    i am chandramouli from india , i have a question , whether the curd taken from the A1 milk will get diluted and can be taken , or the ill effects of A1 completely eradicated or the same qualities in milk will also continue to appear in the curd
    pl give ur valuable comments

  90. Lori

    I’m only an N of 1 but I’ll chip in with my own testimonial… over the past several years, I’ve dealt with a number of health issues, starting with extreme exhaustion/confusion/brain fog and progressing into horrible cluster headaches for 3-4 months last fall. I’ve been doing a variety of things to address all of this, but the single biggest change has been switching my milk. I now drink raw milk from cows who are likely A2 (traditional “brown” cows rather than black and white Holstein-Freisians). If I wait too long between milk runs (I have to drive out of state!) and have some “regular” milk out of desperation, I immediately notice the difference. Headaches come back the next morning, I am congested and out of sorts for days–distracted, temperamental, tired, confused. It is so dramatic that I KNOW this makes a difference for me!

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  93. Sara~mother of Talula and Shania.

    Jersey, Milking Shorthorn and Dutch Belted are the cows I get my milk from. I know the jersey is fine. What about these two?

  94. Pingback: “The Devil in the Milk” — Dr. Thomas Cowan on how the A1 – A2 factor explains why even raw milk sometimes does not seem to be enough of an improvement over “store-bought” « nadavu@wordpress.com

  95. Samuel Kite

    … Awesome. An epidemiological connection has resulted in a mindless decision to prefer one type of milk over another, and culminated in a comments section full of people trying to figure out how to avoid the A1 casein…

    Epidemiology needs to be beaten into peoples heads as a springboard for possible science–not actual evidence in itself. A connection is just a connection. All this shows is that people who happen to eat the dairy from these cows also happen to experience other things. One possibility could be that these are the cows we have in American dairy, and other elements of the american diet are to blame for the health problems its consumers experience–there is *evidence* to implicate gluten and fructose.

    If you could take a group of masai warriors, secretly switch their cows on candid camera, and produce increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, etc, then that would be meaningful evidence. Otherwise you’re at best hypothesizing and at worst, telling people act without a foundation of good information and thereby provide the experimental evidence you lack.

    • Callaghan Grant

      You know, when I stick my hand in a fire, it gets burned so I make the connection pretty fast. When I drink A1 milk, my IBS returns: gastritis, alternating constipation and diarrhea, nausea, weakness, profound weakness when my bowels move accompanied by dizziness. I’d say I am allergic the the A1 protein. Id’ say, since drinking A2 milk has brough back my health and I have lost 60 lbs in 2 years doing nothing but changing to raw grass fed A2 milk, that the change is healthful. That is ALL *I* need to know. But my exhusband too could not drink milk products bought in the store and he had no trouble drinking my A2 Guernsey’s milk raw. He had thought himself “lactose intolerant” yet the A2 milk from our cow made him healthier, he gained weight (which he needed to gain as he was underweight) and had more energy and a healthy glow. Again, I see what works and that is all I need to know. When people tell me they can’t do dairy, I suggest they find a source of A2 milk and give that a try.

  96. Ok, so in America, what dairy cattle breeds are A2? All the time I was growing up, we milked Jersey or Guernsey. And at one point we had a Brownswiss. My neighbor now has a milking shorthorn.

    Now what of the goats, in relation to this bad protein? I milk Nigerian Dwarf and Mini Nubian. Are there goat breeds with the bad protein?

    • Callaghan Grant

      It is my understanding that all goat’s milk is A2. Without doing a DNA test which is not terribly expensive, the best bet is the US for getting only A2 milk is the Guernsey breed which is somewhere up around 98% A2. Jerseys are somewhere around 60% A2, except the mini Jerseys which are less often A2. Google this info up. I am sure it’s out there in a chart somewhere.

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  99. Rob c

    I grew up drinking milk and eating dairy products. However, these past few years I’ve developed a problem to cows milk. All off a sudden. I removed milk completely from my diet and was fine. I’ve since introduced lactose free cows milk and so far no problem. I ve eaten yogurt all my life and have never had problems. Sometimes if I eat a lot of cheese (pizza especially) it bothers my stomach. If I was lactose intolerant wouldn’t yogurt bother me too?

    • in theory yogurt has no lactose because the bacteria have converted it all to lactic acid.

    • John Mills

      It seems your going to have to isolate the problem food much more aggressivley. For instance, when you say “milk” are you referring to pasteurized or raw, ditto with cheese. Pizza is all over the place with ingredients ranging from wheat, yeast, oil, sauce, etc. Also remember as your intestinal flora balance fluctuates so may your tolerances to some foods. What causes these fluctuations? Just about everything. Stress, emotional, social issues, exposure to toxins, and on and on…

  100. Rob c

    I didn’t know that about yogurt has no lactose. But what about cheese then. I don’t always get problems when I eat cheese If I was lactose wouldn’t it always give me problems. I eat cheddar and being from Italian background I eat many Italian cheeses

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  105. Lori McAllister

    We had to test 10 Jersey cows with UC Davis before we found 3 that were double A2. 3 out of 10 are not very good odds, so you have to test the cow before you buy it, because you will not know. Just because it is a Jersey or other older breed of cow does not mean that it will be A2. If it has Holestein bread into it back in the lines somewhere you will have A1 in the lines of that Jersey. We only drink A2 milk and my family of soon to be 8 has no milk allergies or issues of any kind. If we drink anything from the store including icecream we all get stuffed up and have problems. Aged cheese from the store does not bother us though.

  106. Pingback: What The Hell Is Paleo? | Go Fab Get Fit

  107. Unless milk has been tested, you won’t actually know whether they are producing A1 or A2 milk. Some Holstein’s produce A2 milk.

  108. Pingback: Grass Fed Dairy | Jade Meadow

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  110. This is so true.. Dairy can be a Superfood or a Poison! I’m so happy I discovered this truth. I was drinking raw milk from grassfed cows prior to learning about the difference in the TYPE of cow. Now I only buy A2 dairy from Beyond Organic… It just doesn’t get any better than anything I have come across. The Amasai cultured dairy beverage made an immediate difference in my digestion and the 3 day Suero Cleanse with cultured whey has taken my health to another level. It is not easy to get your hands on A2 dairy but now we are able to ship direct to your front door anywhere in the country! I have worked with hundreds of people over the past two years on switching their dairy to A2 and the testimonials are truly amazing! There are so many Americans who are battling illness, cancer, digestive disorders, etc. who need to know about this. I’m happy to answer any questions, just ask! And definitely switch to A2 dairy… It helps to heal the gut, not destroy it. 🙂 ~Stefanie 330-651-2316

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  112. Pingback: Casein & Milk – Immunity Details Change Minds « CorePsych

  113. Hi there friends, how is the whole thing, and what you wish
    for to say about this article, in my view its in fact amazing for me.

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  115. I am a dairy farmer from India. I just stumbled on this article.On further research was surprised that most Indian breeds are A2. Good article.

  116. We raise our own goats (British Alpine – and yes, they ARE black and white!) and we have no problem whatsoever consuming thir milk. I’d never go back to cow’s milk…

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  124. LAURYN 

    Excellent discussion , I am thankful for the details . Does anyone know where my assistant might be able to access a fillable 2014 NJ Form A-1 copy to type on ?

    • Ken Ross

      Those “epidemiological studies” were performed on “rabbits” clearly the “wrong type of species” which make this whole “debate” mute. I suspect it was deliberate. This is what “industrial science” is for – create fear and uncertainty about a natural substance (A1) and provide the solution (A2) and then overtake the market. There is ZERO science here. Just big business. It’s amazing how people don’t use critical thinking when evaluating these so called “studies” and “theories” based on “illusory correlation”.

  125. A1 and a2..

    Tell me difference between …….tell abt
    A2 is good for health.?

  126. Pingback: Make your own nut milks | Martha's Vineyard Catering, Culinary & Agricultural Experiences

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